We all love rose oil however it is not an easy oil to get
your hands on. To make matters more difficult try to buy fresh roses and it’s
almost impossible to find roses that contain their sent. There are so many
reasons to love roses, most of all the smell. Well here is a little info for
why they are so precious and in many cases coveted.
Rose oil activates the PPARs. So what do these receptors do?
Well, I’m glad you asked…. PPARs are a group of nuclear receptors that regulate gene
expression. They are located in the nucleus of the cell where important gene
translation takes place. They function as transcription factors, which are
agents that help transcribe or copy information from DNA to RNA, which is a
process to build proteins. PPARs are structurally similar to steroid or thyroid
hormone receptors. One
main activity of these receptors is to mediate the actions/ behaviours of fatty
acids and fatty acid derived molecules. Recall cannabinoids and
endocannabinoids are derived from fatty acids. Endocannabinoids are known to bind to and target the
PPARs. Endocannabinoids are present in adipose tissues (fat tissues) as well as
other tissues involved in energy metabolism (O’Sullivan SE, et al., 2007). The
PPARs play a role in both pain and disease. They are a great target receptor to
support for system imbalances.
There are three
different families of PPAR receptors.
- PPAR-α, (alpha)
- PPAR- β/δ, (beta-delta)
- PPAR- γ. (gamma)
All of the PPARs play an essential role in
energy metabolism but each has a specific role within its specialized area.
PPAR-α is mostly expressed in the liver, and
minimally in the heart, muscles, and bones, whereas PPAR- δ is said to reduce
inflammatory mediators and adhesion molecules which are proteins located on the
surface of the cell that assist the cell in binding or sticking to other cells
or to their surroundings (Graham TL, et al., 2005), and there are some studies that show
the ligands that target PPAR- δ have the potential to inhibit cardiac
hypertrophy. PPARs are expressed in different areas throughout the entire body.
The PPAR-γ receptor is found in
endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells). The PPAR-γ receptor is a ligand dependant
receptor acting as a sensor for hormones, vitamins, endogenous metabolites, and
xenobiotic compounds – (such as drugs, food additives, and environmental pollutants), in addition to
controlling the expression of a very large number of genes. PPAR-γ is also
known to regulate adipocyte (fat cell) differentiation, fatty acid storage,
glucose metabolism, and anti-diabetic drugs, (Tyagi S, et al., 2011), (Balakumar P et al., 2007). Agonists of the receptor
are said to improve insulin resistance by opposing the effects of a component
found in the adipocytes (Kubota N, et al., 2006).
Rose essential oil, what a great option for this receptor –
rose touch would be another easy to use direction. Simply roll it over some of
the fatty areas of the body. The terpenes will be taken up through the
receptors of the skin in this area as well as distributed to the circulatory
system where they will be carried for further actions. Now you have yet another
reason to love rose oil! Next, roll some rose oil into your hands. Rub them
together briskly, then cup them to your mouth and nose and slowly breathe in.
What a beautiful option for the PPARs.
Rose oil contains terpenes such as citronellol and geraniol
nerol. Rose oil is an analgesic, hypnotic, anti-inflammatory and more.
Katsukawa M, et al., “Citronellol and geraniol, components of rose oil, activate peroxisome
proliferator-activated receptor α and γ and suppress cyclooxygenase-2
expression” Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry, (2011) 75.5: 1010-1012.
Manoharan S. and Selvan, M.V., 2012. “Chemopreventive potential of geraniol in 7,
12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA) induced skin carcinogenesis in Swiss
albino mice” Journal of environmental biology, 33.2: 255.
Graham TL., et al., “The PPARδ agonist GW0742X reduces atherosclerosis in LDLR−/−
mice.” Atherosclerosis (2005): 181.1: 29-37.
Sandeep, et al. “The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor: A family
of nuclear receptors role in various diseases.” Journal of
advanced pharmaceutical technology & research 2.4 (2011): 236.
Pitchai, Madhankumar Rose, and Manjeet Singh. “PPAR ligands: are they
potential agents for cardiovascular disorders?.” Pharmacology 80.1
Kadowaki, Takashi, et al. “Adiponectin and
adiponectin receptors in insulin resistance, diabetes, and the metabolic
syndrome.” The Journal of clinical investigation 116.7